255Tbps: World’s fastest network could carry all of the internet’s traffic on a single fiber

Last Updated on Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:27 Written by wearefaster Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:27

A joint group of researchers from the Netherlands and the US have smashed the world speed record for a fiber network, pushing 255 terabits per second down a single strand of glass fiber. This is equivalent to around 32 terabytes per second — enough to transfer a 1GB movie in 31.25 microseconds (0.03 milliseconds), or alternatively, the entire contents of your 1TB hard drive in about 31 milliseconds.

To put 255Tbps into perspective, the fastest single-fiber links in commercial operation top out at 100Gbps, or 2,550 times slower. 255Tbps is mindbogglingly quick; it’s greater, by far, than the total capacity of every cable — hundreds of glass fibers — currently spanning the Atlantic Ocean. In fact, 255 terabits per second is similar to — or maybe even more than — the total sum of all traffic flowing across the internet at peak time.

How did the researchers at Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) and University of Central Florida (CREOL) do it? Multi-core fiber, of course! As it stands, the entire internet backbone consists of single-mode glass and plastic fiber. These fibers can only carry one mode of light — which, in essence, means they can only carry the light from a single laser. (It’s a bit more complex than that, but it’s beyond the scope of this story to explain it any further.) You can still use wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to push insane amounts of data down a single fiber (a few terabits), but we will eventually run up against the laws of physics.

Multi-core fiber — literally a strand of optical fiber that has multiple cores running along it — allows for multi-mode operation. It has historically been hard (and costly) to make high-quality multi-mode fiber, but it seems those barriers are finally starting to fall. In this case, the TU/e and CREOL researchers used a glass fiber with seven individual cores, arranged in a hexagon. They used spatial multiplexing to hit 5.1 terabits per carrier, and then WDM to squeeze 50 carriers down the seven cores — for a total of 255Tbps. This wasn’t just a short-range laboratory demo, either: The multi-mode fiber link was one kilometer (0.62 miles) long. [Research paper: doi:10.1038/nphoton.2014.243]

(The image at the top of this story is DARPA’s multi-core photonic-bandgap fiber — not the seven-core fiber used in the research discussed here.)

Eventually, multi-mode fiber will most likely replace the internet’s current single-mode backbone — but considering such an upgrade would require millions of miles of new multi-core cabling, and lots of new routing hardware to handle the multi-mode connections, we’re talking very long-term here. Still, with internet traffic continuing to grow at an alarming rate — mostly fueled by the popularity of streaming video, and smartphones and tablets bringing billions more people online — it’s nice to know that we now have the necessary technology to make sure that we don’t run out of bandwidth any time soon.

http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/192929-255tbps-worlds-fastest-network-could-carry-all-the-internet-traffic-single-fiber

About Internet Speed

Last Updated on Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:16 Written by wearefaster Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:16

The bit rates for dial-up modems range from as little as 110 bit/s in the late 1950s, to a maximum of from 33 to 64 kbit/s (V.90 andV.92) in the late 1990s. Dial-up connections generally require the dedicated use of a telephone line. Data compression can boost the effective bit rate for a dial-up modem connection to from 220 (V.42bis) to 320 (V.44) kbit/s.[13] However, the effectiveness of data compression is quite variable, depending on the type of data being sent, the condition of the telephone line, and a number of other factors. In reality, the overall data rate rarely exceeds 150 kbit/s.[14]

Broadband technologies supply considerably higher bit rates than dial-up, generally without disrupting regular telephone use. Various minimum data rates and maximum latencies have been used in definitions of broadband, ranging from 64 kbit/s up to 4.0 Mbit/s.[15] In 1988 the CCITT standards body defined “broadband service” as requiring transmission channels capable of supporting bit rates greater than the primary rate which ranged from about 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s.[16] A 2006 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report defined broadband as having download data transfer rates equal to or faster than 256 kbit/s.[17] And in 2015 the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) defined “Basic Broadband” as data transmission speeds of at least 25 Mbit/s downstream (from the Internet to the user’s computer) and 3 Mbit/s upstream (from the user’s computer to the Internet).[18] The trend is to raise the threshold of the broadband definition as higher data rate services become available.[19]

The higher data rate dial-up modems and many broadband services are “asymmetric”—supporting much higher data rates for download (toward the user) than for upload (toward the Internet).

Data rates, including those given in this article, are usually defined and advertised in terms of the maximum or peak download rate. In practice, these maximum data rates are not always reliably available to the customer.[20] Actual end-to-end data rates can be lower due to a number of factors.[21] Physical link quality can vary with distance and for wireless access with terrain, weather, building construction, antenna placement, and interference from other radio sources. Network bottlenecks may exist at points anywhere on the path from the end-user to the remote server or service being used and not just on the first or last link providing Internet access to the end-user.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_access

What is Latency?

Last Updated on Sunday, 14 February 2016 08:03 Written by wearefaster Sunday, 14 February 2016 08:03

Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, as a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.[1] Latency is physically a consequence of the limited velocity with which any physical interaction can propagate. This velocity is always lower than or equal to the speed of light. Therefore, every physical system that has spatial dimensions different from zero will experience some sort of latency, regardless of the nature of stimulation that it has been exposed to.

The precise definition of latency depends on the system being observed and the nature of stimulation. In communications, the lower limit of latency is determined by the medium being used for communications. In reliable two-way communication systems, latency limits the maximum rate that information can be transmitted, as there is often a limit on the amount of information that is “in-flight” at any one moment. In the field of human–machine interaction, perceptible latency has a strong effect on user satisfaction and usability.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latency_(engineering)

RSS Liquid Claims Settlements

  • Colonial Properties Trust
    Colonial Properties Trust, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the lawsuit: ‘On June 3, 2013, Colonial Properties Trust (‘Colonial’) and Mid-America Apartment Communities, Inc. (‘MAA’) jointly announced their approval of an agreement and plan of merger […]
  • Spartech Corporation
    Spartech Corporation, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the litigation: ‘The Action arises out of a transaction agreed to on October 23, 2012, among Spartech Corporation, PolyOne Corporation, 2012 RedHawk, Inc.), and 2012 RedHawk, LLC (n/k/a […]
  • Duff & Phelps Corporation
    Duff & Phelps Corporation, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘On December 30, 2012, Duff & Phelps Corporation announced that it had entered into a definitive merger agreement pursuant to which it would be acquired by a […]
  • Cascade Corporation
    Cascade Corporation, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. the following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘On October 22, 2012, Toyota Industries Corporation, Industrial Components and Attachments II, Inc., and Cascade announced that they had entered into a definitive merger agreement (the […]
  • AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.
    AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘The Consolidated Action arises out of an agreement and plan of merger entered into on May 12, 2013 by and among, AsiaInfo, Skipper Limited, and Merger […]
  • Teavana Holdings Inc.
    Teavana Holdings Inc. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders of Teavana Holdings Inc in connection with the merger. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the lawsuit: ‘On November 14, 2012, Teavana announced that it had entered into an Agreement and Plan of […]
  • Thomas Properties Group, Inc.
    Thomas Properties Group, Inc. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘On September 5, 2013, TPGI and Parkway announced that they had entered into an Agreement, and Plan of Merger, pursuant to which TPGI would […]
  • Gerova Financial Group Ltd
    Gerova Financial Group Ltd Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for $1.372 million in cash. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘This Action alleges violations of the Federal Securities Laws (specifically Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act (15 U.S.C. §78j(b) and 78(t)(a)) and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder (17 […]
  • UniTek Global Services, Inc.
    UniTek Global Services, Inc. Securities Settlement   The lawsuit was settled for $1.55 million in cash. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘The case concerns claims brought by investors alleging that the price of UniTek common stock was artificially inflated during the Class Period as a result of alleged false […]
  • Massey Energy Co.
    Massey Energy Co. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for $265 million in cash. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the lawsuit: ‘This Action was commenced in April of 2010 by the filing of two complaints alleging that Defendants violated the federal securities laws. Both of those separate actions were consolidated into […]

RSS Value Investing

RSS Elite Forex Blog

  • EES: The TRUTH about the new Bitcoin Futures CME contract
    Elite E Services 12/10/2017 - As a Forex CTA for 12 years, we were happy to learn the CME will offer a Bitcoin futures contract, and called the CME to learn more.  Unlike most of these Bitcoin outfits, the CME has an office, a phone, which is answered, and we were routed to the correct […]
  • Bitcoin Has A "Whale" Problem: 1,000 Investors Control Nearly Half The Market
    If Jay Gould were alive today, he would've traded bitcoin.Perhaps the most blatant hypocrisy perpetrated by bitcoin evangelists is their insistence that bitcoin and other digital currencies represent a return to a truly democratic financial system beyond the control of banks and other special interests, where players small and large can earn enormous profits simply […]
  • Wells Fargo Bankers, Chasing Bonuses, Overcharged Hundreds of Clients
    By Emily GlazerNov. 27, 2017 7:50 p.m. ET182 COMMENTSThe whispers among employees had been around for years. They finally heard some facts during a conference call in June led by managers in Wells Fargo WFC +3.17% & Co.’s foreign-exchange operation: Some of its business customers had been cheated, according to two employees who were on the call.An internal review showed that […]
  • Bitcoin Surges Over $9,500 After Korea's 2nd Biggest Bank Tests Crypto Wallet For Customers
    Update: Bitcoin's surge continues as Asia re-opens, pushing the cryptocurrency above $9500 as Korea's second largest bank tests Bitcoin vault and wallet services for its clients.As Coinivore reports, Shinhan, the second largest commercial bank in South Korea by market valuation in the country is testing a Bitcoin vault and wallet service for its customers that is expected […]
  • Cultivating Good FX Strategies
    (FXBOT.MARKET) -- 11/21/2017 -- FXBOT.MARKET is interested in cultivating high quality, consistent FX strategies based on honesty and transparency.  Every system has a bad day, a bad month - we are traders we get it.  But deleting history or not reporting a big loss ruins the reputation of the entire industry, not only the scam […]
  • Everyone is announcing Bitcoin but no one is doing – it’s all vapor
    (GLOBALINTELHUB.COM) — 11/10/2017 We’d just like to note here that amidst Bitcoin’s historic rise there’s been a flurry of announcements with few ‘releases’ of finished products.  In fact only one company in the US, TZero, has a real regulated product that’s ready to go (which we noted as early as March 2016, but who was […]
  • EES teams up with IC Markets
    Elite E Services has teamed up with IC Markets to provide non-US and US-QEP Forex clients with the ability to trade BTC/USD in MT4.  For those of you who are not familiar with Bitcoin or MT4 you can read our books Splitting Pennies and the sequel Splitting Bits.Open an account with IC Markets
  • Federal Prosecutors Are Investigating Wells Fargo's FX Business
    Last week, WSJ stoked fears that the Feds might be ramping up another probe into abuse and manipulation in the foreign exchange market when it reported that Wells Fargo had abruptly terminated four bankers from its FX business and transferred another. Now, Wall Street’s paper of record is reporting that Federal prosecutors are investigating Wells for abuses […]
  • Ex-HSBC Trader Involved In Front-Running Scandal To Be Extradited To U.S.
    It's not shaping up to be a great week for a group of former HSBC FX traders who decided to front-run a massive $3.5 billion currency trade placed by one of their clients and net their bank some $8 million in illicit profits in the process.  Earlier this week, Ex-HSBC currency trader Mark Johnson, who was […]
  • Ex-HSBC Currency Trader Convicted Of Fraud In Massive Front-Running Scandal
    Ex-HSBC currency trader Mark Johnson, who was unwittingly captured on an audio recording saying "I think we got away with it," has just been convicted by a jury in New York of fraud for front-running a $3.5 billion transaction that netted his firm some $8 million in illicit profits.  Per Bloomberg:Former HSBC Holdings Plc currency trader Mark Johnson was […]