255Tbps: World’s fastest network could carry all of the internet’s traffic on a single fiber

Last Updated on Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:27 Written by wearefaster Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:27

A joint group of researchers from the Netherlands and the US have smashed the world speed record for a fiber network, pushing 255 terabits per second down a single strand of glass fiber. This is equivalent to around 32 terabytes per second — enough to transfer a 1GB movie in 31.25 microseconds (0.03 milliseconds), or alternatively, the entire contents of your 1TB hard drive in about 31 milliseconds.

To put 255Tbps into perspective, the fastest single-fiber links in commercial operation top out at 100Gbps, or 2,550 times slower. 255Tbps is mindbogglingly quick; it’s greater, by far, than the total capacity of every cable — hundreds of glass fibers — currently spanning the Atlantic Ocean. In fact, 255 terabits per second is similar to — or maybe even more than — the total sum of all traffic flowing across the internet at peak time.

How did the researchers at Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) and University of Central Florida (CREOL) do it? Multi-core fiber, of course! As it stands, the entire internet backbone consists of single-mode glass and plastic fiber. These fibers can only carry one mode of light — which, in essence, means they can only carry the light from a single laser. (It’s a bit more complex than that, but it’s beyond the scope of this story to explain it any further.) You can still use wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to push insane amounts of data down a single fiber (a few terabits), but we will eventually run up against the laws of physics.

Multi-core fiber — literally a strand of optical fiber that has multiple cores running along it — allows for multi-mode operation. It has historically been hard (and costly) to make high-quality multi-mode fiber, but it seems those barriers are finally starting to fall. In this case, the TU/e and CREOL researchers used a glass fiber with seven individual cores, arranged in a hexagon. They used spatial multiplexing to hit 5.1 terabits per carrier, and then WDM to squeeze 50 carriers down the seven cores — for a total of 255Tbps. This wasn’t just a short-range laboratory demo, either: The multi-mode fiber link was one kilometer (0.62 miles) long. [Research paper: doi:10.1038/nphoton.2014.243]

(The image at the top of this story is DARPA’s multi-core photonic-bandgap fiber — not the seven-core fiber used in the research discussed here.)

Eventually, multi-mode fiber will most likely replace the internet’s current single-mode backbone — but considering such an upgrade would require millions of miles of new multi-core cabling, and lots of new routing hardware to handle the multi-mode connections, we’re talking very long-term here. Still, with internet traffic continuing to grow at an alarming rate — mostly fueled by the popularity of streaming video, and smartphones and tablets bringing billions more people online — it’s nice to know that we now have the necessary technology to make sure that we don’t run out of bandwidth any time soon.

http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/192929-255tbps-worlds-fastest-network-could-carry-all-the-internet-traffic-single-fiber

About Internet Speed

Last Updated on Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:16 Written by wearefaster Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:16

The bit rates for dial-up modems range from as little as 110 bit/s in the late 1950s, to a maximum of from 33 to 64 kbit/s (V.90 andV.92) in the late 1990s. Dial-up connections generally require the dedicated use of a telephone line. Data compression can boost the effective bit rate for a dial-up modem connection to from 220 (V.42bis) to 320 (V.44) kbit/s.[13] However, the effectiveness of data compression is quite variable, depending on the type of data being sent, the condition of the telephone line, and a number of other factors. In reality, the overall data rate rarely exceeds 150 kbit/s.[14]

Broadband technologies supply considerably higher bit rates than dial-up, generally without disrupting regular telephone use. Various minimum data rates and maximum latencies have been used in definitions of broadband, ranging from 64 kbit/s up to 4.0 Mbit/s.[15] In 1988 the CCITT standards body defined “broadband service” as requiring transmission channels capable of supporting bit rates greater than the primary rate which ranged from about 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s.[16] A 2006 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report defined broadband as having download data transfer rates equal to or faster than 256 kbit/s.[17] And in 2015 the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) defined “Basic Broadband” as data transmission speeds of at least 25 Mbit/s downstream (from the Internet to the user’s computer) and 3 Mbit/s upstream (from the user’s computer to the Internet).[18] The trend is to raise the threshold of the broadband definition as higher data rate services become available.[19]

The higher data rate dial-up modems and many broadband services are “asymmetric”—supporting much higher data rates for download (toward the user) than for upload (toward the Internet).

Data rates, including those given in this article, are usually defined and advertised in terms of the maximum or peak download rate. In practice, these maximum data rates are not always reliably available to the customer.[20] Actual end-to-end data rates can be lower due to a number of factors.[21] Physical link quality can vary with distance and for wireless access with terrain, weather, building construction, antenna placement, and interference from other radio sources. Network bottlenecks may exist at points anywhere on the path from the end-user to the remote server or service being used and not just on the first or last link providing Internet access to the end-user.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_access

What is Latency?

Last Updated on Sunday, 14 February 2016 08:03 Written by wearefaster Sunday, 14 February 2016 08:03

Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, as a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.[1] Latency is physically a consequence of the limited velocity with which any physical interaction can propagate. This velocity is always lower than or equal to the speed of light. Therefore, every physical system that has spatial dimensions different from zero will experience some sort of latency, regardless of the nature of stimulation that it has been exposed to.

The precise definition of latency depends on the system being observed and the nature of stimulation. In communications, the lower limit of latency is determined by the medium being used for communications. In reliable two-way communication systems, latency limits the maximum rate that information can be transmitted, as there is often a limit on the amount of information that is “in-flight” at any one moment. In the field of human–machine interaction, perceptible latency has a strong effect on user satisfaction and usability.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latency_(engineering)

RSS Liquid Claims Settlements

  • Colonial Properties Trust
    Colonial Properties Trust, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the lawsuit: ‘On June 3, 2013, Colonial Properties Trust (‘Colonial’) and Mid-America Apartment Communities, Inc. (‘MAA’) jointly announced their approval of an agreement and plan of merger […]
  • Spartech Corporation
    Spartech Corporation, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the litigation: ‘The Action arises out of a transaction agreed to on October 23, 2012, among Spartech Corporation, PolyOne Corporation, 2012 RedHawk, Inc.), and 2012 RedHawk, LLC (n/k/a […]
  • Duff & Phelps Corporation
    Duff & Phelps Corporation, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘On December 30, 2012, Duff & Phelps Corporation announced that it had entered into a definitive merger agreement pursuant to which it would be acquired by a […]
  • Cascade Corporation
    Cascade Corporation, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. the following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘On October 22, 2012, Toyota Industries Corporation, Industrial Components and Attachments II, Inc., and Cascade announced that they had entered into a definitive merger agreement (the […]
  • AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.
    AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘The Consolidated Action arises out of an agreement and plan of merger entered into on May 12, 2013 by and among, AsiaInfo, Skipper Limited, and Merger […]
  • Teavana Holdings Inc.
    Teavana Holdings Inc. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders of Teavana Holdings Inc in connection with the merger. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the lawsuit: ‘On November 14, 2012, Teavana announced that it had entered into an Agreement and Plan of […]
  • Thomas Properties Group, Inc.
    Thomas Properties Group, Inc. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘On September 5, 2013, TPGI and Parkway announced that they had entered into an Agreement, and Plan of Merger, pursuant to which TPGI would […]
  • Gerova Financial Group Ltd
    Gerova Financial Group Ltd Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for $1.372 million in cash. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘This Action alleges violations of the Federal Securities Laws (specifically Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act (15 U.S.C. §78j(b) and 78(t)(a)) and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder (17 […]
  • UniTek Global Services, Inc.
    UniTek Global Services, Inc. Securities Settlement   The lawsuit was settled for $1.55 million in cash. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘The case concerns claims brought by investors alleging that the price of UniTek common stock was artificially inflated during the Class Period as a result of alleged false […]
  • Massey Energy Co.
    Massey Energy Co. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for $265 million in cash. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the lawsuit: ‘This Action was commenced in April of 2010 by the filing of two complaints alleging that Defendants violated the federal securities laws. Both of those separate actions were consolidated into […]

RSS Value Investing

  • Sutton View on IFLR: A Hedgie’s take on M&A in 2016
    Mike Winston of Sutton View Capital discusses the importance of intrinsic value investing at this point of the cycle At a time when many corporates, banks and law firms are... The post Sutton View on IFLR: A Hedgie’s take on M&A in 2016 appeared first on Sutton View Capital LLC.
  • HEDGE FUND: Here’s what’s going to happen at Yahoo
    Yahoo is under pressure. Its shares have fallen by 35% over the past year, and shareholders are pushing for the company to split off its core business from a $30 billion investment in... The post HEDGE FUND: Here’s what’s going to happen at Yahoo appeared first on Sutton View Capital LLC.
  • A Full Break-Up Of Yahoo Vs. Swift Completion Of The Aabaco Spin-Off
    Summary This week the board of Yahoo will consider whether to pursue a sale of the core business in place of or in addition to the spin-off of Aabaco. The... The post A Full Break-Up Of Yahoo Vs. Swift Completion Of The Aabaco Spin-Off appeared first on Sutton View Capital LLC.
  • At Yahoo, Pressure for Change Tests Board’s Loyalty to Mayer
    Directors are urged to challenge CEO Marissa Mayer as they meet to decide fate of core business Three days of deliberations between Yahoo Inc.’s directors this week have put the... The post At Yahoo, Pressure for Change Tests Board’s Loyalty to Mayer appeared first on Sutton View Capital LLC.
  • Yahoo Switcheroo, Goodbye Aabaco, Hello Core Spin: Revised Sum Of The Parts
    Summary Yahoo will spin off its non-Alibaba assets (Cash, Yahoo Core and Yahoo Japan stock) instead of spinning off its 15% Alibaba stake into a separate (i.e. Aabaco). The new... The post Yahoo Switcheroo, Goodbye Aabaco, Hello Core Spin: Revised Sum Of The Parts appeared first on Sutton View Capital LLC.
  • Mike Winston of Sutton View Capital featured on CNBC
    Mike Winston of Sutton View Capital featured on CNBC Click here to view the CNBC page where Video is hosted The post Mike Winston of Sutton View Capital featured on CNBC appeared first on Sutton View Capital LLC.
  • Hedge funds play big in Vegas
    Fully stocked poolside cabanas, a private Lenny Kravitz concert, and oh yeah, access to some of the top investors in the world. That was the scene at the SkyBridge Alternative... The post Hedge funds play big in Vegas appeared first on Sutton View Capital LLC.
  • Just A Few ?s For… Mike Winston from Seeking Alpha
    Mike Winston, Would you please offer up an investment research technique that readers might be able to use? Assemble the Chairman’s letters from each of the last ten years, and then... The post Just A Few ?s For… Mike Winston from Seeking Alpha appeared first on Sutton View Capital LLC.
  • Mike Winston: Long MGM Holdings
    Mike Winston of Winston Capital Partners, InvestPitch presentation produced by sumzero and Institutional Investor on the long case for MGM Holdings Inc (OTCMKTS:MGMB). Buy MGM Holdings Inc (OTCMKTS:MGMB) because the stock... The post Mike Winston: Long MGM Holdings appeared first on Sutton View Capital LLC.
  • Institutional Investor Global finance market news, analysis and research
    The post Institutional Investor Global finance market news, analysis and research appeared first on Sutton View Capital LLC.

RSS Elite Forex Blog

  • Detailed summary of election fraud in the 2020 Presidential race
     Authored by Patrick Basham via The Spectator,Reasons why the 2020 presidential election is deeply puzzlingTo say out-loud that you find the results of the 2020 presidential election odd is to invite derision. You must be a crank or a conspiracy theorist. Mark me down as a crank, then.I am a pollster and I find this election to […]
  • How The Election Was Really Stolen, Tucker Carlson Explains
     Authored by Andrea Widburg via AmericanThinker.com,When Tucker Carlson attacked Sidney Powell, I was unhappy with him. However, I said that I would still watch Tucker because he’s mostly smart, brave, and funny, qualities I like. Some people (politely) disagreed with me. Having seen Tucker’s Monday monologue, though, I am glad that I stuck to my […]
  • JPMorgan Makes $1 Billion From Gold Trading After Paying $1 Billion Fine For Manipulating Gold Trading
    From Zero Hedge: This, in a nutshell, is how Wall Street works: just two months after JPMorgan was fined a record $1 billion criminal monetary penalty (to make sure not a single banker would end up going to prison) for rigging the gold and silver markets, Reuters reported that JPM - having clearly "learned" the tools […]
  • LabCorp Hidden Liabilities With Faulty Paternity Tests
    From Zero Hedge:Crediblock.com Second Sight Markets Analysis 11/24/2020SummaryLabCorp provides genetic tests which always name the father who is named in the legal document, not based on science.This creates a massive liability for LabCorp, as the results are used in legal cases and for other means.This liability alone is enough to significantly impact their future growth.New competitors in […]
  • WHISTLEBLOWERS: Biden Implicated In Dominion Voting Scam Connected To Serbia
     From National FileHigh-level whistleblowers exclusively tell NATIONAL FILE that Dominion Voting Systems has been a “national security threat” for years and its machines, programmed in Serbia, are known for vote-flipping like the kind that Dominion was caught engaging in during the 2020 presidential election in Michigan. According to whistleblowers, Democrat presidential candidate Joe Biden personally […]
  • Soros-Connected Company Has Provided Voting Technology In 16 States
     From Daily CallerSmartmatic, a U.K.-based voting technology company with deep ties to George Soros, has provided voting technology in 16 states including battleground zones like Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Michigan, Nevada, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Other jurisdictions affected are California, District of Columbia, Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri, New Jersey, Oregon, Washington and Wisconsin.Its website includes a flow-chart that describes how […]
  • Shrem: Bretton Woods 2.0 Is Knocking At The Door, And It's Not Here To Help
     Authored by Charlie Shrem via CoinTelegraph.com,A second Bretton Woods era will be even more centralized and even further from a true democracy...image courtesy of CoinTelegraphBarely 100 years ago at the start of the 20th century, people were able to exchange dollars for gold at their local bank. While gold was too hard to trade between people, […]
  • The "Global Reset" Scam
     Authored by Alasdair Macleod via GoldMoney.com,This article takes a tilt at increasing speculation about statist global resets, and why plans such as those promoted by the World Economic Forum will fail. Central bank digital currencies will simply run out of time.Instead, the collapse of unbacked fiat currencies will end all supra-national government solutions to their […]
  • America's Elites - Not Trump - Are Responsible For Undermining American Democracy
     Authored by Tho Bishop via The Mises Institute,It is an overplayed cliché to refer to the insanity of the current year. Still, 2020 manages to surprise. It is increasingly looking like 2020 has created the greatest challenge to democratic legitimacy in the past century.Yesterday was a truly remarkable day in American history.The official legal team for […]
  • Preserving the Presidency: JFK and the Military Industrial Complex
     From Canadian Patriot:By Anton ChaitkinThe Anglo-American oligarchy began a coup against President Donald Trump after his surprise 2016 election and it has continued to this very day. They were in a panic to block his announced aims of partnership with Russia, the end of permanent war, the overturn of predatory Free Trade, and the return of Glass Steagall to break […]