255Tbps: World’s fastest network could carry all of the internet’s traffic on a single fiber

Last Updated on Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:27 Written by wearefaster Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:27

A joint group of researchers from the Netherlands and the US have smashed the world speed record for a fiber network, pushing 255 terabits per second down a single strand of glass fiber. This is equivalent to around 32 terabytes per second — enough to transfer a 1GB movie in 31.25 microseconds (0.03 milliseconds), or alternatively, the entire contents of your 1TB hard drive in about 31 milliseconds.

To put 255Tbps into perspective, the fastest single-fiber links in commercial operation top out at 100Gbps, or 2,550 times slower. 255Tbps is mindbogglingly quick; it’s greater, by far, than the total capacity of every cable — hundreds of glass fibers — currently spanning the Atlantic Ocean. In fact, 255 terabits per second is similar to — or maybe even more than — the total sum of all traffic flowing across the internet at peak time.

How did the researchers at Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) and University of Central Florida (CREOL) do it? Multi-core fiber, of course! As it stands, the entire internet backbone consists of single-mode glass and plastic fiber. These fibers can only carry one mode of light — which, in essence, means they can only carry the light from a single laser. (It’s a bit more complex than that, but it’s beyond the scope of this story to explain it any further.) You can still use wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to push insane amounts of data down a single fiber (a few terabits), but we will eventually run up against the laws of physics.

Multi-core fiber — literally a strand of optical fiber that has multiple cores running along it — allows for multi-mode operation. It has historically been hard (and costly) to make high-quality multi-mode fiber, but it seems those barriers are finally starting to fall. In this case, the TU/e and CREOL researchers used a glass fiber with seven individual cores, arranged in a hexagon. They used spatial multiplexing to hit 5.1 terabits per carrier, and then WDM to squeeze 50 carriers down the seven cores — for a total of 255Tbps. This wasn’t just a short-range laboratory demo, either: The multi-mode fiber link was one kilometer (0.62 miles) long. [Research paper: doi:10.1038/nphoton.2014.243]

(The image at the top of this story is DARPA’s multi-core photonic-bandgap fiber — not the seven-core fiber used in the research discussed here.)

Eventually, multi-mode fiber will most likely replace the internet’s current single-mode backbone — but considering such an upgrade would require millions of miles of new multi-core cabling, and lots of new routing hardware to handle the multi-mode connections, we’re talking very long-term here. Still, with internet traffic continuing to grow at an alarming rate — mostly fueled by the popularity of streaming video, and smartphones and tablets bringing billions more people online — it’s nice to know that we now have the necessary technology to make sure that we don’t run out of bandwidth any time soon.

http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/192929-255tbps-worlds-fastest-network-could-carry-all-the-internet-traffic-single-fiber

Learn More

About Internet Speed

Last Updated on Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:16 Written by wearefaster Sunday, 14 February 2016 10:16

The bit rates for dial-up modems range from as little as 110 bit/s in the late 1950s, to a maximum of from 33 to 64 kbit/s (V.90 andV.92) in the late 1990s. Dial-up connections generally require the dedicated use of a telephone line. Data compression can boost the effective bit rate for a dial-up modem connection to from 220 (V.42bis) to 320 (V.44) kbit/s.[13] However, the effectiveness of data compression is quite variable, depending on the type of data being sent, the condition of the telephone line, and a number of other factors. In reality, the overall data rate rarely exceeds 150 kbit/s.[14]

Broadband technologies supply considerably higher bit rates than dial-up, generally without disrupting regular telephone use. Various minimum data rates and maximum latencies have been used in definitions of broadband, ranging from 64 kbit/s up to 4.0 Mbit/s.[15] In 1988 the CCITT standards body defined “broadband service” as requiring transmission channels capable of supporting bit rates greater than the primary rate which ranged from about 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s.[16] A 2006 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report defined broadband as having download data transfer rates equal to or faster than 256 kbit/s.[17] And in 2015 the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) defined “Basic Broadband” as data transmission speeds of at least 25 Mbit/s downstream (from the Internet to the user’s computer) and 3 Mbit/s upstream (from the user’s computer to the Internet).[18] The trend is to raise the threshold of the broadband definition as higher data rate services become available.[19]

The higher data rate dial-up modems and many broadband services are “asymmetric”—supporting much higher data rates for download (toward the user) than for upload (toward the Internet).

Data rates, including those given in this article, are usually defined and advertised in terms of the maximum or peak download rate. In practice, these maximum data rates are not always reliably available to the customer.[20] Actual end-to-end data rates can be lower due to a number of factors.[21] Physical link quality can vary with distance and for wireless access with terrain, weather, building construction, antenna placement, and interference from other radio sources. Network bottlenecks may exist at points anywhere on the path from the end-user to the remote server or service being used and not just on the first or last link providing Internet access to the end-user.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_access

Learn More

What is Latency?

Last Updated on Sunday, 14 February 2016 08:03 Written by wearefaster Sunday, 14 February 2016 08:03

Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, as a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.[1] Latency is physically a consequence of the limited velocity with which any physical interaction can propagate. This velocity is always lower than or equal to the speed of light. Therefore, every physical system that has spatial dimensions different from zero will experience some sort of latency, regardless of the nature of stimulation that it has been exposed to.

The precise definition of latency depends on the system being observed and the nature of stimulation. In communications, the lower limit of latency is determined by the medium being used for communications. In reliable two-way communication systems, latency limits the maximum rate that information can be transmitted, as there is often a limit on the amount of information that is “in-flight” at any one moment. In the field of human–machine interaction, perceptible latency has a strong effect on user satisfaction and usability.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latency_(engineering)

Learn More

RSS Liquid Claims Settlements

  • Colonial Properties Trust
    Colonial Properties Trust, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the lawsuit: ‘On June 3, 2013, Colonial Properties Trust (‘Colonial’) and Mid-America Apartment Communities, Inc. (‘MAA’) jointly announced their approval of an agreement and plan of merger […]
  • Spartech Corporation
    Spartech Corporation, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the litigation: ‘The Action arises out of a transaction agreed to on October 23, 2012, among Spartech Corporation, PolyOne Corporation, 2012 RedHawk, Inc.), and 2012 RedHawk, LLC (n/k/a […]
  • Duff & Phelps Corporation
    Duff & Phelps Corporation, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘On December 30, 2012, Duff & Phelps Corporation announced that it had entered into a definitive merger agreement pursuant to which it would be acquired by a […]
  • Cascade Corporation
    Cascade Corporation, Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. the following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘On October 22, 2012, Toyota Industries Corporation, Industrial Components and Attachments II, Inc., and Cascade announced that they had entered into a definitive merger agreement (the […]
  • AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.
    AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘The Consolidated Action arises out of an agreement and plan of merger entered into on May 12, 2013 by and among, AsiaInfo, Skipper Limited, and Merger […]
  • Teavana Holdings Inc.
    Teavana Holdings Inc. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders of Teavana Holdings Inc in connection with the merger. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the lawsuit: ‘On November 14, 2012, Teavana announced that it had entered into an Agreement and Plan of […]
  • Thomas Properties Group, Inc.
    Thomas Properties Group, Inc. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for additional disclosures in the proxy statement mailed to shareholders. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘On September 5, 2013, TPGI and Parkway announced that they had entered into an Agreement, and Plan of Merger, pursuant to which TPGI would […]
  • Gerova Financial Group Ltd
    Gerova Financial Group Ltd Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for $1.372 million in cash. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘This Action alleges violations of the Federal Securities Laws (specifically Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act (15 U.S.C. §78j(b) and 78(t)(a)) and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder (17 […]
  • UniTek Global Services, Inc.
    UniTek Global Services, Inc. Securities Settlement   The lawsuit was settled for $1.55 million in cash. The following is a summary of the proceedings in this lawsuit: ‘The case concerns claims brought by investors alleging that the price of UniTek common stock was artificially inflated during the Class Period as a result of alleged false […]
  • Massey Energy Co.
    Massey Energy Co. Securities Settlement The lawsuit was settled for $265 million in cash. The following is a summary of the proceedings in the lawsuit: ‘This Action was commenced in April of 2010 by the filing of two complaints alleging that Defendants violated the federal securities laws. Both of those separate actions were consolidated into […]

RSS Value Investing

RSS Elite Forex Blog

  • Overstock.com Soars After Its Blockchain Sub Gets PE Investment At $1.5BN Valuation
    Online retailer Overstock reported results which, unlike its much more famous and infinitely bigger online retailing peer Amazon, were nothing special: the company reported Q2 revenues of $483 million, generating a net loss for the quarter of $2.20 on a gross margin of 19% in the quarter.But the company's earnings were not the reason why […]
  • PODCAST: EXPLOITING ANOMALIES IN FINANCIAL MARKETS · DR. WILLIAM ZIEMBA
    Past performance is not necessarily indicative of future performance.[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J35Y3HncbQg] Past performance is not necessarily indicative of future performance.The risk of loss in trading commodity interests can be substantial. You should carefully consider whether such trading is suitable for you in light of your financial condition. This material does explain all the risks involved in […]
  • Crypto Day Trading the next big traders market
    Crypto Day Trading - Electronic Day Trading became popular in the mid 1990's with the rise of 'retail' stock trading, meaning that anyone with $50,000 could open an account and trade with "Level 2" access which was purportedly the same access the market makers had.  Of course day-traders were no match for professional market makers […]
  • Companies from Wall Street continue to innovate in the Crypto Space
    Private Equity investors or Pre-IPO investors may want to look at this hot new Crypto option.Cornucopia is an example of how Blockchain is really innovating the alternative investment space.The pace of new Crypto Currency offerings has increased dramatically in recent years. First, there were ICOs, then there were STOs, and now there is a mix […]
  • Milk and Cookies: How Bitcoin empowered a generation of hopers
    Bitcoin has had a net negative effect on the perception of Main Street on investing, and a potential huge long term effect on the architecture of markets.  What Bitcoin has created in the short term, is a powerful analogy based on insane assumptions: We have a coin that will be like Bitcoin, and go up […]
  • EXPOSED: Secret History of Russia and Wall St.
    As we have often explained in our book Splitting Pennies, the world is not as it seems.  Politics often polarizes a country it seems every election there becomes 'two' Americas but the current polarization seems to be that of 'rational' and 'irrational' whereas on one side, there are facts; and on the other, hysterical opinions.  While […]
  • Trump the worlds worst FX trader
    As we have explained in Splitting Pennies - the global markets are not as they seem.  As we are now all aware, Trump started a trade war which really is the equivalent of a pissing contest (as it mostly is just talk), however it seems as though Trump's heart is in the right place putting America first […]
  • Crypto Market showing signs of cracking - too many Shitcoin
    The Crypto Market isn't all it's cracked up to be.  Last year we wrote a book on this topic, Splitting Bits (you can get it here).  But the book was written in October, before the huge rise in price in November and December.   Just like with traditional markets - investors only seem interested in the winners.  When […]
  • Deutsche Bank fined $205m for foreign exchange rigging
    The New York Department of Financial Services (DFS) has fined the bank for unlawful, unsafe and unsound behaviour in its foreign exchange trading businessDeutsche Bank agreed to pay the fines for violations of New York banking law that included, among other things, skewing prices and misleading customers.The violations were discovered during a DFS investigation, which […]
  • tZERO Sale Closing News Announcements And Clients Signing On Will Drive Overstock And tZERO Token Higher
    SummaryThe world forgot about the tZERO ICO.tZERO recently announced a partnership with BOX Digital Markets.They raised $250M, reaching their goal (according to sources).There is nothing stopping tZERO and OSTK from a 10x or 20x return.The crypto market has cooled down, with some sites indicating that the market is down to $268 billion market cap (total, including all […]